The Human Truth Foundation

A List of All Religions and Belief Systems

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

85 entries are listed here. It is simply impossible to list all varieties of religion1 as we as a species have created an almost infinite variety of religious and transcendental ideas. Items in lower case italics are classes of religion and not actual religions. For example, "theism" is any religion that contains god(s), and "polytheism" is a form of theism.

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DescriptionGod(s)?HeritageArea of OriginFoundedFounderAfterlife?Holy Texts?
agnosticismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief that (1) God, if it exists, is by nature unknowable and will always be unknowable, or, (2) that the individual being asked cannot conclude if god exists or not for lack of evidence one way or the other.Atheist/monotheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedNone
AmishThe symbol of ChristianityPeaceful Christian fundamentalist group famous for its rejection of technology and strict adherence to OT and NT laws.MonotheistChristianitySwitzerland1693CE CEBy Jakob Ammann and his followers split from the AnabaptistsHeaven or hellThe Bible
ancestor worshipA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief that good relations need to be kept with tribal ancestor spirits. Often a form of Shamanism.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricYesNone
animismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. The belief that all objects contain spirits. More a traditional form of belief than a "religion" in the Western sense.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricNot definedNone
AsatrúA modern uptake of Nordic religion.PolytheistScandinavian folkloreIceland1972 CEOtherNone
atheismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Either (1) the active and extrinsic disbelief that God exists, or (2) an intrinsic lack of belief due to lack of knowledge about god(s) in local culture.AtheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricNot definedNone
Aum ShinrikyoDangerous and violent religious community responsible for the 1995 Sarin gas attack on Tokyo's subway and other crimes. Eventually they apologized, stopped using the Bible, and formed the more prosaic group called Aleph.TheistChristianity and Far Eastern religionJapan1984 CEBy Shoko AsaharaYesThe Bible and other
Bahá'í FaithThe symbol of the Bahai FaithA world religion2,3,4. Belief that a series of prophets have come from God, and that Bahá'í is the latest religion founded by God. A liberal offshoot of Islam, but persecuted in Iran.Monotheist god named Bahá, AllahShi'a IslamIran18635 CEBy Bahá'u'lláhYesWritings of Baha'u'llah and Abdul Baha
Brahma KumariThis group are preparing to rule the world after a coming apocalypse, and embrace many practices which are now called New Age.MonotheistHinduismIndia1930s CEBy Lekhraj Kripalani (called Brahma Baba)Writings of founder and leaders
Branch DavidiansThe symbol of ChristianityApocalyptic suicide cult famed for its dramatic armed fight against authorities in the town of Waco, USA, in 1993.Monotheist god named GodChristianityUSA1930CE CEBy Benjamin RodenHeaven or hellThe Bible
BuddhismThe symbol of BuddhismA world religion2,3,4,6. The belief that meditation and good living can break the cycle of reincarnation and result in enlightenment.AtheistHinduismIndia1st millennium BCEFrom traditions based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha GautamaReincarnation until escapeMultifaceted
Celtic PaganismModern reconstructions of Celtic paganism form part of the neo-pagan range of religions.Not knownPrehistoricUKprehistoricNone
Chen TaoA series of civilisations on Earth have arisen but destroyed themselves in nuclear war. Each time, some faithful believers were rescued by flying saucers and put back on Earth.TheistChristianity and BuddhismTaiwan1996 CEBy Hon Ming ChenYes
Chinese ReligionA varied cultural religion practiced traditionally on a town-by-town and region-by-region basis.AtheistPrehistoricChinaprehistoricReincarnation until escapeNone
ChristadelphiansThe symbol of ChristianityBible-based Christianity.Monotheist god named GodChristianityUSA1840s CEBy Dr John ThomasHeaven or hellThe Bible
Christian Apostolic Church In ZionThe symbol of ChristianityFundamentalist Anti-science flat-earth Christian cult, who also predicted the End of the World would occur 4 different times.MonotheistChristianityUSA1895CE CEBy John Alexander DowieHeaven or hellThe Bible
Christian ScientistsThe symbol of Unitarian UniversalismJesus didn't die, and, all illness is an illusion if only you believe it enough.Monotheist god named GodChristianityUSA1879CE CEBy Mary Baker Eddy
ChristianityThe symbol of ChristianityA world religion2,3,4. Belief that a single creator god had a son, Jesus Christ, born to a human mother, and that Jesus' crucifixion by the Romans brings salvation.Monotheist god named GodJudaism7 and paganism8Roman Empire1st-3rd centuryCEBy multiple Greek writers, including St PaulHeaven or hellThe Bible
Concerned ChristiansThe symbol of ChristianityFundamentalist Christians active in the USA, Israel and Greece who expected the end of the world in year 2000, starting with a nuclear attack on the USA, which they appeared to be trying to instigate themselves.Monotheist god named GodChristianityUSA1980s CEBy Monte Kim MillerHeaven or hellThe Bible
ConfucianismThe symbol of ConfucianismA world religion9,10,4. A collection of ethical and moral teachings.AtheistChinese religionChina-551 to 479 BCEBy ConfuciusNone
Dami XuanjiaoA millenarian cult based on the belief that Jesus would return to judge survivors in 1999. Suspected of being on the verge of mass suicide after predictions of the end of the world failed in year 2000.MonotheistChristianitySouth Korea1980s CEYes
deismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief in a single creator god who is not "personal" and does not have human emotions, and which many believers say does not interact with the world.MonotheisttheismPrehistoric/universalprehistoricNot definedNone
Divine LightmissionA self-help religious group involving meditation, with few fixed beliefs.Hard to tellHinduismIndia1960 CEBy Indian guru Shri Hans Ju MaharajNone
DruidismCeltic religion in prehistoric England. Modern reconstructed Druidism is part of the neo-pagan range of religions.Not known/polytheistPrehistoricUKprehistoricReincarnationNone
DruzeA semi-secretive esoteric religion with features of a Mystery Religion.MonotheistIslamCairo, Egypt1014-1017CE11 CEBy Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad11ReincarnationQur'an, Rasa'il al-hikma (Epistles of Wisdom)
dualismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief that either (1) There is a good and evil god of equal, or almost-equal power, or (2) there are two gods, such as a male and female one.DualistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedMultifaceted
EbionitesPossibly the earliest form of Christianity to exist.MonotheistJudaismJudea (now Israel)1st centuryEarly version of the Gospel of Matthew
EckankarThe symbol of EckankarNew Age religion, a mix of Sant Mat, Theosophy and Scientology.MonotheistNew AgeUSA1965 CEBy Paul TwitchellReincarnation until escapeShariyat-Ki-Sugmad12
GnosticismThe belief that we must escape from this world, which was created and is ruled by an inferior and unworthy god, and reunite with the true god.PolytheistPrehistoricGreeceprehistoric (1st century?)Multifaceted
Hare KrishnaThe embracing of Krishna through correct living, honesty, spiritual life and austerity.PolytheistHinduismUSA1966 CEBy A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami PrabhupadaReincarnation until escapeVarious Indian scriptures
HeathenismModern uptake of Nordic religion. Part of the neo-pagan range of religions.PolytheistAsatruScandinaviaNone
Heaven's GateThe symbol of ChristianityApocalyptic suicide cult who combined Biblical eschatology with New Age and ideas about UFOs. All 39 members committed suicide in San Diego, USA in 1997.TheistChristianity and New AgeUSA1970s CEBy Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie NettlesYes
HinduismThe symbol of HinduismA world religion2,10,4. Cultural religion of India which was historically decentralized and disparate and not a single belief system. Western influence made it into a single religion, an identity which Hindus now accept.PolytheistPrehistoricIndiaprehistoricReincarnation until escapeMultifaceted
Hookers For Jesus / The Family Of GodThe symbol of ChristianitySexually promiscuous group who fell foul of police suspicion. As is often the case, increasing pressure from outside resulted in the group retreating even further into insanity, and they became The Family, predicting the end of the world.Monotheist god named GodChristianityUSA1968CE CEBy David BergHeaven or hellThe Bible
HumanismAn organized form of atheism where moral and ethical goodness is emphasized.AtheistThe enlightenmentEuropeThe EnlightenmentBy enlightenment thinkersNoneNone
IslamThe symbol of IslamA world religion2,3,4. Strict monotheism taught by Muhammad, the world's 2nd largest religion.Monotheist god named AllahJudaismSaudi Arabia610 CEBy MuhammadHeaven or hellQur'an and Hadiths
JainismThe symbol of JainismA world religion2,10,4. Beliefs include non-violence and equality of all living things.AtheistPrehistoricIndia6th century BCE13By Lord Vardhamana MahaviraReincarnation until escapeJain Agamas
Jedi KnightsA campaign saw many put this down as their religion on the UK census in 2001. Midichlorians exist in all living beings, which create a 'living force' that can be interacted with.AnimistScience fictionUK2001 CEAs a campaign for UK CensusSelect fewNone
Jehovah's WitnessesThe symbol of ChristianityA 140-year-old Christian fundamentalist/literalist organisation famous for preaching that the world is about to end (nowadays - because of the existence of the United Nations).Monotheist god named JehovahChristianityUSA1870s CEBy Charles Taze RussellOtherThe Bible
JudaismThe symbol of JudaismA world religion2,3,4. Organized Judaism emerged from Babylonian writings. Belief that God has a special contract with a Hebrew tribe, involving many specific rules of behaviour.Monotheist god named JHWHPrehistoricBabylon (mostly - now Iraq) and Israel1st millennium BCEAs a combination of prehistoric practices which became organized in BabylonYesTanakh and Talmud
MarcionitesThe Old Testament God is evil, but the NT god is good.DualistChristianityRome2nd centuryBy Marcion
MennoniteThe symbol of ChristianityA Protestant Christian denomination.Monotheist god named GodChristianityNetherlands1632CE CEBy Menno SimonsHeaven or hellThe Bible
MithraismRoman mystery religion that believed that the Son of the Sun was a saviour who was sacrificed for the good of all.MonotheistRoman mystery religionsGreece-50 BCE to 50 CE BCEYesNot known
monotheismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief in a single creator god.TheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedMultifaceted
MormonismThe symbol of ChristianityMonotheist god named ElohimChristianity and American occultismUSA183014 CEBy Joseph SmithYesBook of Mormon and Christian Bible15
MysticismThe belief that God is unknowable but accessible, and that doctrinal religion hampers spiritual growth.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricNot definedMultifaceted
Nasorean Mandaeans (sabians)Pacifists who hold that baptism is the most meaningful ritual, and that Jesus wasn't the one foretold by John the Baptist.TheistJudaismJudea (Palestine)1st century BCE/very early CEBy John the BaptistYes
Native American ChurchBeliefs vary from tribe to tribe and are sometimes noticeably Christian.MonotheistThe Peyote religionMexico1880s CEBy Quanah ParkerNone
New AgeA disparate and diverse collection of popular beliefs and practices.Not definedCountercultureThe West1850s CEFrom popular beliefs from the 1850s, attaining identification in the 1960sOtherNone
no religionA form of belief, rather than a specific system. The rise secularisation has seen public and private religion decline throughout the developed world.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedNone
occultismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Normally existing within other belief systems, occult systems concentrate on esoteric meanings in texts, often with magical undertones.Not definedCounterculturePrehistoric/universalNot definedMultifaceted
Order Of The Solar TempleApocalyptic suicide cult, with mass suicides in Switzerland, France and Quebec, in preparation for Jesus' second coming.MonotheistChristianity and New AgeFrance1984CE CEBy Joseph Di Mambro & Luc JouretYesThe Bible and other
PaganismPart of the neo-pagan range of religions.PolytheistCountercultureThe West19th centuryFrom a romantic revival of interest in Celtic, Greek and pre-Christian spiritualitiesYesNone
pantheismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. God is everywhere, and everything, but is not transcendent and may have no distinct consciousness.MonotheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricNone
PastafarianismA parody religion based on worship of the Flying Spaghetti Monster.MonotheistParodyUSA2005 CEBy Bobby HendersonHeaven or hellGospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
People's TempleThe symbol of ChristianityApocalyptic suicide cult that imploded, resulting in the deaths of over 600 adults and 276 children.MonotheistChristianityUSA1960s CEBy Rev. James (Jim) Warren JonesHeaven or hellThe Bible
polytheismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief in multiple gods, often in some form of hierarchy.TheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedMultifaceted
Raja YogaAn astika school of Hindu philosophy based around mastering and quieting the mind, involving meditation.PolytheistHinduismIndiaThe Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
RastafarianThe symbol of ChristianityGod (called Jah) fathered a black Jesus; marijuana use in rituals.MonotheistChristianityJamaica1930s CEThe Bible (generally)
RavidassiaSouls are part of the divine and proper living allows us to realize God.MonotheistHinduism and SikhismIndia14th centuryBy the guru RavidassAmritbani Guru Ravidass Ji
Salvation ArmyThe symbol of ChristianityChristian organisation of evangelists organised along military lines, famous for charity work.MonotheistChristianity (Methodist)UK1865CE CEBy Methodist minister William BoothHeaven or hellThe Bible
SanteríaA combination of West African, Caribbean beliefs with some elements of Roman Catholicism.MonotheistChristianity and West African spiritualityCubaNone
SatanismAn atheist religion that uses dark and evil symbology for self-development and anti-religious purposes - Satan itself is not a real being, just a symbol.AtheistAtheismUSA1966 CEBy Anton LaveyNoneWritings of founder and leaders
ScientologyDerived from the writings of science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard, a series of practices called Dianetics is used to clear minds of alien influences and attain a state of mental perfection.AtheistScience fictionUSA1952 CEBy L. Ron HubbardReincarnationWritings of founder and leaders
ShamanismBelief that Shamans need to keep good relations with tribal ancestor spirits for the good fortune of the whole tribe.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricYesNone
ShintoThe symbol of ShintoA world religion2,10,4. Official collection of practices in Japan, more cultural than religious.AtheistJapanese cultureJapan3rd century BCEGradually formed over timeVarious
SikhismThe symbol of SikhismA world religion2,10,4. Prayer, meditation and self control to become a soldier of God.Monotheist god named SatnamHinduismIndia15th centuryBy Guru NanakReincarnation until escapeSri Guru Granth Sahib and others
SpiritualismThe belief that the souls of the dead communicate with the living, mostly through Mediums, but, suffered serious credibility problems with the original founders admitted to fraudulently inventing the 'rappings' that formed the communications.Not definedChristianity and New AgeUSA1848 CEBy fraudsters Kate and Margaret FoxYesNone
sun worshipA simple icon representing the sunA form of belief, rather than a specific system. The basis of much symbology used in many subsequent religions.Not definedPrehistoricUniversalprehistoricNot definedNone
Swenborgian / New ChurchScripture must be interpreted spiritually, not literally, and Baptism and the Last Supper are the two sacraments.Monotheist god named GodChristianitySweden1770CE CEBy Emanuel SwedenborgYesThe True Christian Religion
TaoismA world religion2,3,4. A relaxed and peaceful religion based on following and accepting the flow of life.AtheistChinese philosophyChina3rd century BCE16Based on teachings attributed to Lao TzuNoneTao Te Ching
theismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. The belief in god(s).Natural thoughtPrehistoric/universalprehistoricMultifaceted
ThelemaA magical system of discerning True Will with inspiration from a host of Egyptian gods.PolytheistOccultismUK1904 CEBy Aleister CrowleyBook of the Law
TheosophyMired in fraud arrests and exposés, the Spiritualism scene had soured, so Madame Blavatsky reinvented her routine as a new religion, using an Indian theme.TheistSpiritualism and Westernized Indian spiritualityUSA1875 CEBy Madame Blavatsky and Henry Steel OlcottReincarnation
Traditional African ChurchA range of Churches ranging from mostly Christian, to those mostly encapsulating native African spirituality.MonotheistChristianity and African cultureAfricaThe Bible
Unification ChurchSun Myung Moon embodied the Second Coming of Christ, and his commercialist church runs a media empire.MonotheistChristianitySouth Korea1954CE CEBy Sun Myung MoonHeaven or hellThe Bible and The Exposition of the Divine Principle
UnitarianismA liberal and non-Trinitarian Christian church.MonotheistChristianityPoland, Lithuania, Hungary16th centuryHeavenThe Bible
Unitarian-universalismThe symbol of Unitarian UniversalismA liberal and diverse pluralist religion accepting of believers without needing them to leave their current religions.Not definedChristianityUSA19th centuryHeavenMultifaceted
universalismA form of belief, rather than a specific system. Belief that all people go to heaven.TheistNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalHeavenMultifaceted
VoodooA traditional religion from Haiti with an ethical focus on combating greed and promoting honour.DeistAfrican traditional theologyAfricaprehistoricNone
WiccaNeo-pagan organisation based around reconstructed elements of folklore.DualistCountercultureUK1954 CEBy Gerald GardnerNot definedNone
WitchcraftA description of various cultural practices, which are often part of a parent belief system.Not definedNatural thoughtPrehistoric/universalNot definedMultifaceted
YezidismThe circular and complex symbol of the YezidisAn ancient religion. Malek Taus looks after the world with 6 other angels. Heavily persecuted by Muslims and accused of Devil Worship.MonotheistZoroastrianism and ancient Mesopotamian cultureAssyria (now Iraq)12th centuryBy Abi ibn MusafirReincarnationYezidi Book of Revelation & Black Book
Zhu Shen JiaoAs this group got more and more excited about establishing a Kingdom of God, in the approach to year 2000, its leaders were arrested amid fears that it would turn into a suicide cult.TheistThe ShoutersChina1993 CEYes
ZoroastrianismThe symbol of Zoroastrianism - wide bird-like wings and a man holding a ringA world religion10,4. An ancient dualistic religion from Iran with one good god (Ahura Mazda) and one evil one (Ahriman).DualistPrehistoricPersia (now Iran)Before 5th century BCEBy ZoroasterAvesta