The Human Truth Foundation


By Vexen Crabtree 2015


#atheism #christianity #ethiopia #iraq #islam #israel #judaism #monotheism #polytheism #sudan

Links: Pages on Judaism, Other Religions
The symbol of Judaism
God(s)Atheist / Monotheist / Polytheist / Other
TextsTanakh and Talmud
Area of OriginBabylon (mostly - now Iraq) and Israel
When1st millennium BCE
FounderCombination of prehistoric practices which became organized in Babylon
Numbers in the UK (Census results)
2001259 9272011263 000
Jews Worldwide (Pew & WM)
World: 0.225%. Israel (75.6%), Gibraltar (2.1%), USA (1.8%), Monaco (1.7%), Belize (1%), Canada (1%), Cayman Islands (0.8%), Moldova (0.6%), Bahrain (0.6%), UK (0.5%), France (0.5%), Australia (0.5%), Argentina (0.5%) 1

Judaism is one of the most ancient religions, and became largely codified in Babylon in the 6th century BCE2. It was perhaps the first religion to be comprehensively monotheistic. Jews believe that God has a special covenant with the Jewish community3, as testified to in the Torah. From Judaism sprang both Christianity and Islam. Judaism is counted as one of the great world religions4,5.

1. Main Pages on Judaism

Moral Debates

Book Reviews

Links and other pages:

2. Numbers of Jews Around the World, by Country


Pos.Pew Forum (2010)1Worldmapper (2005)6
7Cayman Islands0.8%
19Netherlands Antilles0.3%
22US Virgin Islands0.3%
23San Marino0.3%
26New Zealand0.2%0.1%
33Equatorial Guinea0.1%
34N. Korea0.1%
38Dominican Rep.0.1%0.0%

The way that the religious and cultural identity of the Jews is intermingled means that statistics often include both religious Jews and secular (non-religious) ones. For example, atheist Jews make up a sizeable portion of Jews worldwide.

As a result of the Holocaust in the 20th century CE there was a dramatic and rapid move in Jewish numbers away from Europe3.

The population of only one country is half (or mostly) Jew (2011)1. Comparing those 1 country(ies) to the rest of the world:

3. Types of Judaism16

#judaism #poland #secularisation #theism #USA

There are four main forms of Judaism.

4. About Judaism16

#agnosticism #atheism #christianity #egypt #germany #islam #israel #spain #USA

5. The Disputed Ancient History of the Jews

In his description of Humanistic Judaism, Prof. Partridge notes that modern secular academics dispute the entire Biblical pseudo-history of the Jewish peoples.

Book CoverAccording to Sherwin Wine, the major exponent of Humanistic Judaism, the traditional conception of Jewish history is mistaken. In his view, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed. Furthermore, the Exodus account is a myth: 'There is no historical evidence to substantiate a massive Hebrew departure from the land of the Pharaohs. As far as we can surmise, the Hebrew occupation of the hill country on both sides of the Jordan was continuous. The 12 tribes never left their ancestral land, never endured 400 years of slavery, and never wandered the Sinai desert.' Moreover, Moses was not the leader of the Hebrews, nor did he compose the Torah. In this light, it is an error to regard the biblical account as authoritative; rather it is a human record of the history of the Israelite nation, the purpose of which is to reinforce the faith of the Jewish nation. [...] Humanistic Judaism thus offers an option for those who wish to identify with the Jewish community despite their rejection of the traditional understanding of God's nature and activity.

"Encyclopedia of New Religions" by Christopher Partridge (2004)29

Current edition: 2015 Jan 03
Last Modified: 2017 Jul 11
Second edition 2009 Jun 27
Originally published 2004 Oct 06
Parent page: A List of All Religions and Belief Systems

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#agnosticism #atheism #christianity #egypt #ethiopia #germany #iraq #islam #israel #judaism #monotheism #poland #polytheism #religion #secularisation #spain #sudan #theism #USA

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

(1906) Jewish Encyclopedia. Published in 12 volumes between 1901-1906. A copy of the text can be accessed on

Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer
(1997) Religions of the World. Subtitled: "The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, & Festivals". Published by Lionheart Books. By Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books. A hardback book.

Davies, Owen
(2009) Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Davies is Professor of Social History at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. A hardback book.

Eliade, Mircea
(1987, Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Religion. Published by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA. 16 huge volumes. Eliade is editor-in-chief. Entries are alphabetical, so, no page numbers are given in references, just article titles. A hardback book.

Finkelstein & Silberman
(2002) The Bible Unearthed. Subtitled: "Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc, NY, USA. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman. An e-book.

Harrison, Guy P.
(2008) 50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God. Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA. An e-book.

Murray et al.
(2009) Hammond Atlas of World Religions. Published by Hammond World Atlas Corporation, Langenscheidt Publishing Group, New York, USA. Contributing authors: Stuart A.P. Murray; Robert Huber; Elizabeth Mechem; Sarah Novak; Devid West Reynolds, PhD; Tricia Wright; Thomas Cussans. A hardback book.

Partridge, Christopher
(2004, Ed.) Encyclopedia of New Religions. Published by Lion Publishing, Oxford, UK. A hardback book.

Pew Forum. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life.
(2012) The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010. Published 2012 Dec 18, accessed online 2013 May 01.

Pilkington, C. M.
(1995) Teach Yourself Judaism. Published by Hodder Headline PLC. A paperback book.

United Nations
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

(2008) Worldmapper Datasets 551-582: Religion. Worldmapper Datasets 551-582: Religion (2008 Mar 26) on, accessed 2013 Nov 11. Authored by John Protchard, published by SASI, University of Shieffield. Data is for year 2005, with some datasets being edited from original sources to remove the effects of double-counting, and, adjusting for population changes between 2002 and 2005.


  1. Pew (2012) .^^
  2. Finkelstein & Silberman (2002) .^
  3. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter "Introduction" p10.^^^
  4. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Listed amongst 10 world religions, devoting a chapter to each.^
  5. Murray et al. (2009). P.v. Listed amongst 12 current world religions.^
  6. Worldmapper (2008) .^
  7. UN (2013). Table 1 provides Life Expectancy At Birth for all countries.^
  8. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  9. UN (2013). Table 1.^
  10. UN (2013). Table 4.^
  11. Encyclopædia Britannica article "Falasha" accessed 2015 Jan 03.^
  12. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) .^
  13. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). Article "Falashas".^
  14. From Wikipedia (link), accessed 2015 Jan 03: A 1999 study by Lucotte and Smets studied the DNA of 38 unrelated Beta Israel males living in Israel and 104 Ethiopians living in regions located north of Addis Ababa. It concluded that "the distinctiveness of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution of the Beta-Israel from conventional Jewish populations and their relatively greater similarity in haplotype profile to non-Jewish Ethiopians are consistent with the view that the Beta Israel people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and not the Levant." This study confirmed the findings of a 1991 study by Zoossmann-Disken et al. Similarly, a 2000 study by Hammer et al. of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes of Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggested that "paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", with the exception of the Beta Israel, who were "affiliated more closely with non-Beta Israel Ethiopians and other East Africans". A 2004 study by Shen et al. reached similar conclusions, that the Beta Israel were likely descended from local Ethiopian populations.^
  15. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p41.^
  16. Added to this page on 2015 Jan 03.^^
  17. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p36.^
  18. Pilkington (1995). p3.^
  19. Partridge (2004). p104.^
  20. Harrison (2008). Chapter 44 "Someone I trust told me that my god is real".^
  21. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p34.^
  22. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p37.^
  23. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p39.^
  24. The word "Torah" is used (wrongly) by some people to refer to the whole of the Hebrew bible, when it should only really be used for the first 5 books. See "Religions of the World" by Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997)30 p28.^
  25. Eliade (1987)31 volume 2 entry "Biblical Literature".^
  26. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter 1 "Judaism" p28.^
  27. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life research results "U.S. Religious Knowledge Survey" (2010 Sep 28). From a poll conducted in May and June 2010 involving 3412 American adults.^
  28. Davies (2009). p7-15,29.^
  29. Partridge (2004). p118.^
  30. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) .^
  31. Eliade (1987) .^

©2019 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)